Unconventional Resources of Waters in Arab Homeland


The growth of water resources in the Arab Homeland encounters obstacles of bad management, in both, supply and demand that created several negative phenomena like waste in water and bad future planning to cover the ever growing population demand and lack of the reliability of the information that could the planning centers rely on to draw future plans on the national level.

The growing conventional water resources in the Arab homeland, due to its dry geographical location and situation and limited rainfalls and the fact that most of its waters come from outside sources.

The other option of developing water resources is to resort to unconventional resources, which this study is dedicated to. In spite of the high cost of this option, it is particularly used in countries where there are no other options particularly the Gulf countries.

This study is composed of three chapters and supplements:


Chapter one:

Consists of three parts. The first part is about the demands on water in the world, showing the fresh water resources and their distribution on the lands. Also the expected shortages to respond to the growing demand by the growing populations. And another review of the salty water resources in the world, their amounts and distribution on the seas and oceans, their methods of benefiting from desalination to cover the expected shortage of water in the world.

The second part: show the most important methods of desalination of water in the world, with advantages and the practical process and its efficiency of its uses in different places in the world. In addition to discussing the different costs of its productions per unit of water desalinated and the factors determining its uses.

While the third part has discussed the process of desalination in the Arab homeland and the cost of each unit of desalinated water from the Arabian Gulf. In addition to detailed desalination of water in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries and the chances of development of desalination industries and their productivities.


Chapter Two:

 Is formed of two parts: the first part is about the balance between the supply and demand on water in the Arab homeland through a detailed ways of how to increase the resources then details of how to decrease the demand on these resources. Besides, discussing the official attempts to limit the waste of waters in the main sectors (domestic, agriculture and industrials). And finally a review of the practical methods for best guide of water uses in the Arab homeland.

The second part of chapter two is about economical uses of water through many axes, vs.: ways of pricing of water unit and its aims, the opinions of the international and regional about the pricing of water. The international attempts to found banks and organizations specialized in waters to charge the cost of waters from the consumers and the additional cost of each water unit, conventional and unconventional (drinking, irrigation and industrial). And finally, discussing the main obstacles in front of pricing the irrigating waters and the economical costs of unconventional water.


Chapter three:

 Consists of two parts, the first, discusses the management and the privatization of water resources through several axes: management of supply and resources and the main ways to increase the supply, the international bank and the water management, the theoretical basis of privatization of water sector. Also, reviewing the advices from the international organizations in relation to privatization of water and the experiences of the developing countries with regard to water privatization. And finally the attempts of the Arab attitudes towards the privatization of water sector.

Part two: discusses educational and legal aspects to limit the water wastages through several avenues: the role of constitutional methods in water education, the role of legal methods in water education, and the role of women, media, school programmers, home economy and finally the role of the civil society in water education.

Also, the legal methods have been discussed through the following: The legal amendment on water policy, limitation of domestic water consumption, coordination between the state sectors and the state support to the farmers by way of water rationing. And finally, this summary.


The supplements:

The references which have been used for this research work, plus the Arabic and foreign references and the quarterly and other magazine and journals. And finally, a list of the studies published by the author.


Title: Unconventional Resources of Waters in Arab Homeland

Year: 2004.


Publishing: Talls- Damascus, Alsaqi- London.