Study Summary: The Future Challenges of the Environment and Water (The Damages, Adaptation Measures and the Solutions) 2020 2050.
The global climate changes have negatively affected the climatic conditions and the rainfalls according to geographical locations of the different states. The cold countries have become warmer, so the rainfalls and floods have increased, while the states in hot regions have become hotter and consequently dryer with decrease in water supply.
The erosion of drought and water scarcity have lead to desertification which in turn lead to the exodus of large agricultural areas from agricultural use, and rise in unemployment, food shortages, poverty and economic losses.
It is not easy to reduce the damages of negative climatic changes, but can be adapted to them and to strive to comply with international framework agreements to reduce future emission rates of gases in order to limit the environmental degradation, which requires many decades to recover and stabilise the environmental health conditions, to addressing the various environmental challenges and inevitable damages to the ecosystem.
The study consists of an Introduction and six chapters, with several main axes and sub-sections:
Chapter One (Global Warming and Adaptation Measures)
Two axes: The first axis (the challenges of global warming, confrontation and adaptation). It includes two items: the challenges of global warming in the world in general, and the challenges of global warming in the Arab world in particular.
The second axis (challenges of environmental degradation and coping and adaptation measures)
Chapter Two (Water scarcity and the phenomenon of droughts) Delving in two axes: The first axis (Water resources and water scarcity challenges). It includes two items: Water scarcity and increasing water requirements in the world, challenges of water scarcity and increasing water requirements in the Arab world.
The second axis (the challenges of drought phenomenon and the mitigation measures) which includes two items: Integrated management, and mitigation measures to confront the drought.
Chapter Three (Population Growth and Food Requirements) Two axes: The first axis (the challenges of population growth and the rise in the food requirements). It includes two items: the challenges of global population growth, and food requirements, the challenges of population growth in the Arab world and food requirements.
The second axis (carbon footprint, environmental and green economy challenges) includes three items: water footprint challenges, carbon footprint challenges, and green economy transition processes.
Chapter four (Climate Changes and Soil and Water Sustainability) Two axes: The first axis (Challenges of global climate changes and integrated water resource management) which includes three themes: the challenges of water, and sanitation management, and the challenges of scientific and technological development of water sustainability.
The second theme (challenges of sustainable water resources and soil fertility) includes two items: the challenges of water resource sustainability, and the challenges of soil fertility sustainability.
Chapter five (The challenges of wastes and the local municipal services): deals with two axes: The first axis (deals with waste and its risks to public health and the environment) It includes two items: the challenges of the waste and its dangers to public health and the environment, the challenges of municipal solid waste and industrial waste and its dangers to public health and the environment.
The second axis (challenges to the construction of public and domestic sewerage systems) includes two items: the challenges of establishing public sewerage drains, and the challenges of constructing domestic sewage disposal pipes.
Chapter six (Water Recycling, Support and Financing): Two axes: The first axis (the challenges of sewage and agricultural wastewater recycling and its uses). It includes two items: the challenges of recycling the different wastewater and its uses in the world, And the challenges of recycling the different wastewater and its uses in the Arab world.
The second axis (support challenges for international and regional organizations and financing for water projects and sustainable development) includes three items: the challenges of support, and funding for international organizations, the challenges of support and funding for regional organizations, and the challenges of investment in sustainable development.
Finally, the abstract, Arabic and foreign references.