The Water Security and the Concept of Sovereignty

and Peace in The River Jordan Valley.

 

This study is dealing with one of the most sensitive and burning issues in the Middle-east. Water crisis is regarded the most important one between Arab and Israel. The wars between the two sides during the past fifty years were about the water resources. The peaceful development in Arab-Israel conflict over the recent years, has not solved the conflict on water, instead, it has aggravated it, and the peaceful negotiations have been turned into negotiations about how to share every drop of water.

The failure of geographical security overt concept has given way to the announcement in the equation of Arab-Israeli conflict after the second Gulf war to the emergence of the more secret and more important concept of the water security. Therefore, this study has concentrated on the demands of the latter in the States of the Jordan river valley and its relations to the Sovereignty of these States and its effect on the peace march in the Middle-East, as has been discussed thoroughly in this book through four chapters, supported with statistical tables and maps, in addition to supplements.

 

Chapter one:

This chapter includes the topographical details of Jordan River and its tributaries, and  the role of these tributaries in supplying it with water. Also we alluded to the most important attempts of resolving water problems from the mid thirties to the end of fifties. These matters have been discussed logically and in unbiased manner, both technically and scientifically. The author has shed light on the most important positive and negative aspects and on how would be possible to use some of these aspects as the foundation in the current negotiations for the peaceful settlement in the Middle-east, taking into consideration, a number of important issues like: shortage of water in the region. Growth in population, and the extent of benefiting from water projects built for faire and just distribution of water on all parties are involved in the peace process.

 

Chapter two:

Through this chapter the author has reviewed views and opinions of the States of  Jordan river valley in regard to the water crisis and the ideal use of these views how to solve it. Also he reviewed the most important International resolutions put forward, including the authors own opinion, to solve this problem, in technical and scientific methods. Followed by detailed discussions  of the most important views and positions of the Israeli leaders in relation to peace process, particularly, those related to water problem. From these views and discussions, the author has reached  into conclusions and requirements of water supply in the future to keep pace with the growth in population and the increase in demands for water and food.

 

Chapter three:

In this chapter, the author has discussed the main water projects of the States of the Jordan river valley which are: Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Palestine -the West bank and Gaza district. The current and future Jordanian water projects have been reviewed and discussed. Also a review and discussion of the different aspects of  peace treaty between Jordan and Israel related to water and why Israel refuses to implement the clauses of the peace treaty, which has lead later on to water crisis that Jordan has badly suffered, which eventually solved by interference of Syria to solve the crisis through its share of Al-Yarmouk river.

In regard to Syria, the author has shed light on water resources in particular, the rivers which have International characters like: Al-Asi, Euphrates, Tigris, and Al-Yarmouk as well as the conflict between Syria and the states sharing these rivers, and the International water treaties which have been signed by those States. Also the Syrian position from the peace process in relation to water resources in the occupied Golan heights.

As for Lebanon, the author has described with some details, the main water resources, rivers, and the main projects built so far, in addition to discussing Israeli excuses which have lead to her control on Lebanese water resources of Al-Hasibani and Al-litani and the extent of Israeli behavior against the International laws.

On the Israeli side, the author has discussed the Israeli water projects and her share of water resources which Israel has controlled by force from her Arab neighbours and their relations to the projects proposed in the fifties.

As for Palestine, the author has shed light on the underground water resources in the west bank and Gaza district and their positions from the green and red lines  which were drawn by Israel and how far the expected Israeli withdrawal from these lines. In addition to explaining about the water situation in the West-bank and the district, and the current and future population needs, and the future water projects required after creation of the Palestinian state.

 

Chapter four:

This chapter is the biggest one in the book, due to its importance, since it has dealt with different ways of developing water resources in the States of Jordan valley, in order to put an end to the conflict for water in the region. The author has discussed, with some details, the most important water projects in the Middle-east particularly, the regional, which will participate in solving the water crisis in the region, that is by participation of the International fund in building these projects in order to remove the concept of profit and losses that is governing the peace process negotiations about water.

The author has put forward his own views: technical, scientific, and economical, about these projects and the possibility of benefiting from them on the long term, to achieve water security and end the state of conflict in the region, so they can direct the huge potentials and resources to rebuild their countries and improving the living standard for the people in the region.

 

Supplements:

There are several supplements, about:  Water, Agriculture, legal, and political concepts and the misuse of these concepts by the press and other non specialists, among them, politicians as well as journalists alike, which has lead to confusion and misunderstanding of the public at large about this important issue. Therefore, in order to clarify the terminology and avoid confusion, the author has done his best to solve this problem.

Also there is a bibliography about the important references, for those interested to read further about the subject.

This study is an attempt to add another drop of a scientific knowledge to the other great scientific resources about water resources, that took part and worked hard  to solve the water crisis in the Middle east taking into consideration the population growth and decrease in water in order to achieve peace and stability for all people in the region.