((The Water Resources and Requirements

in the Valley of Souss-Massa and Dra))


The geographical location of Souss-Massa and Dra is characterised by being located between Atlas mountains ( the great, the middle and the minor). It extends through several valleys of different slope with several water tributaries that pouring into the main river of the two basins which form wide area of fertile plateaus that extends toward the mouth of the river at the shore of the Atlantic ocean.

 And this topographic relief created different climates for the different regions in the two basins, most importantly, the Mediterranean climate and the desert one that lead to a variety of crops in these two basins.

The study is formed of three chapters, discussing: the Natural system of the resources and the tributaries, the water and the environmental requirement. And finally, the planning and the preparations of water politics.


Chapter 1: consists of three sections: The first one, is searching in the hydrographical network of the Souss basin (upper, middle and lower), its valleys, tributaries, and the underground water reservoirs and their  connections to Massa basin.

 The second section looks into water constructions, storage, reservoirs on Souss-Massa stream and their contributions in satisfying the agricultural, human and industrial needs, and injecting water into the underground reservoirs which have been subjected to the contaminations as a result of a long time of abuses.

The third section searches in the hydrographical network of the Dra basin (upper, middle and lower) as well as its valleys, and its water tributaries that pouring in the main river of Dra basin and its water constructions and the extent of its contribution in satisfying human and agricultural needs.

 Also the section shads light on the main oasis in the Dra basin and their role in the irrigation of agricultural lands and the settlement of the population in the desert regions.


Chapter 2 consists of three sections: first section looks into the population settlement and the administrative organization and regulations of the region (Souss-Massa, Dra) and the pressure exerted on the water resources.

 The second section looks in the agricultural issues of the region from water requirement point of view and the productivity of the crops and the traditional and modern methods of irrigation and the amount of the wasted water.

 The third section looks into the environmental factors of the region and the effect of natural plants and grasses on the climate and water and their effects on contaminations and the ways of benefiting from the water of the agricultural drains and sewage system to cover the deficiencies of water in the region.


Chapter 3: Also is formed of three sections, the first section is about the different uses of water in the region like drinking water and the treating water stations and the administrations controlling its distribution and the causes of drinking water deficiencies. Also the water requirement for the industries and the tourism and the pressure posing on the water resources in the region.

The second section is dealing with the water requirement of different fields, comparing the supply and demand, the imbalance between the supply demand at the present and the future. Also the author made a comparison between the resources and needs of water, on both national and regional, supply and demands.

The third section deals with traditional measures in the region in water distribution between the farmers, comparing them with water regulations issued nationally and the extent of their role in controlling water deficiency in the region

And in the end of chapter 3, there is a summary about the main ideas of the book and the conclusions in finding the causes of the water deficiency and how to respond to it.

In the end there is a section of annexes includes, lists of the references, bibliography, Arabic and none Arabic that the study has depended upon. Also a summary in English, in addition to a list of the other books published by the author.