marsh region in
After the second Gulf war in 1991
and the Iraqi uprising against Saddam Hussein and his repressive regime, the
Marsh Dwellers were amongst those who revolted against the regime. The reaction
of the regime was very harsh, and a genocide campaign was launched against them.
Thousands were killed and the rest fled to
The Study consists of three chapters:
This chapter deals with the geographical and environmental conditions of Iraq as a whole and the historical role of Tigris and Euphrates (the Twin Rivers) in the ancient civilizations. Also what the mythologies told about the roles of Gods in ancient Mesopotamia, where the Twin Rivers were regarded as the rivers of Paradise. Changes in the course of the rivers at different times of history have been explained, including the branches connecting the two rivers. This chapter also gives a description of the current streams and shapes of the two rivers and the dams and irrigation projects built on them during modern Iraqi history.
This chapter explains how the marshes were formed and how they developed in Southern Iraq through history. Also how myths and anecdotes were transmitted from generation to generation about how the marshes were formed. The current government projects to drain the marshes are described as well as details of the irrigation projects in the marsh regions which have been adversely affected by the desiccation. Facts and evidence are given about the origins of the Marsh People, discussing different opinions about this issue, including their culture and mythology. The chapter also discusses the expected ecological disaster from desiccation of the marshes which will affect the region, the people and life in general, locally as well as in neighboring countries. The last section of this chapter discusses animal life in the marshes and its economic importance for people’s lives (jobs and professions) like fishing, bird catching and holding buffaloes and cattle in addition to agricultural activities.
chapter discusses the role of the Marsh People in the civilizations of
The author discusses the main reasons for the compulsory emigration of the Marsh Arabs, forced on them by Saddam Hussein’s regime since the Gulf war in 1991.The chapter also deals with the damage caused to the tribes living in the area as a result of draining the marshes as well as the indifferent stance of the Arab and other states. It also refers to the United Nations resolutions dealing with the plight of the Marsh Arabs.
Finally the possibility is explored of restoring the marshes to their original form after overthrowing Saddam’s government and his repressive regime. How can the original ecological situation be recreated, how can one repatriate the Marsh People to their homeland, encouraging them to resume their culture, folklore, professions and their ways of life which they inherited from their Sumerian ancestors. Different opinions are quoted of many experts who visited the marsh area.
Consists of a glossary of the vocabulary and scientific terminology related to the study, giving the definition of each of them to help the reader to understand the study. Then a list of references which the study has used, followed by a bibliography of Arabic and foreign books and journals.