The Groundwaters in the Arab Homeland

 

Most of the groundwater reservoirs in the Arab Homeland are regarded as unrenewable or with limited recharge because of shortage of rains, due to the location of these regions in the dry zones and deserts. As a result of the population increase in these countries which have been subjected to successive waves of drought there is a shortage in the supply of water needed. Hence the governments of the regions were forced to invest in the the extraction of groundwater as a substitute for other resources.

   The states of the Arabian Peninsula are suffering from a severe shortage of water, not only because of the lack of rain but because of the absence of rivers in these countries. Therefore, these countries rely entirely on groundwater to cover their needs. And because of irrational use, these resources suffer from severe pollution.

   The study consists of  three chapters, including a number of cods, tables, and different forms of charts. The chapters are as follows:

 

Chapter One:

This chapter is the main one and deals with the groundwaters in the Arab Homeland, their amount, pollution, and characteristics. The study covers the groundwater reservoirs in the Sahara of Northern Africa, mainly Morocco, the Eastern Arab Homeland, the Arabian Peninsula and the common groundwater reservoirs in the region. Also this chapter deals with the sources of water such as rain, rivers, irrigation and other sources which contribute to recharging the groundwater.

 

Chapter Two:

This chapter deals with the expected crisis of the groundwater between Arab states and their neighbors in the future, such as Egypt-Israel, Jordan-Israel, Palestine-Israel, Saudi Arabia-Iran and, finally, Mauritania-Mali. Also discussed is the possible conflict which could arise between Arab states themselves, for instance between Saudi Arabia and Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Yemen, Saudi Arabia and Syria , Saudi Arabia and other Gulf States and, finally, Egypt and Libya.

   In addition to the above mentioned, there are proposals to lay down a draft of an Arabic Law for groundwater extraction. The main suggestions in these laws are to form an Arabic Court to look into the disputes which could arise between Arab States, and a program to create institutions specialized in administering the use of groundwater.

 

Chapter Three:

In this chapter the development and expansion of Arab groundwater reservoirs is discussed. To review their evaluation and assessment all necessary charts and information have been gathered. Ways are sought to recharge them with water by underground injecting system, legal and financial obstacles and how to calculate the costs. In addition to current international systems to evaluate groundwater with respect to pollution, methods of discovering pollution by using new technologies like remote gauge devices and satellite and Geographical Information System (GIS) are discussed, including difficulties in their use. Also the causes and main factors of groundwater pollution, their types and causes of their deterioration in the Arab Peninsula are discussed as well as observation systems to know the polluted regions.

 

The Supplements:

Consists of a glossary of the vocabulary and scientific terminology related to this field used in the book, giving the definition of each of them to help the readers understand. A number of tables and charts about the groundwaters in order to compare these sources with each other. These will help the readers who want to pursue the subject further. Then a few mathematical equations to evaluate water resources. Finally a list of references which the study has used, and a bibliography of Arabic and foreign books and journals.