The Global Weather Changes and Their Impacts On Fresh Water

 

The fresh water in the world is threatened to decline as a result of  the increase in population and pollution. The total amount of water in the world is about 9millions cubic Kilometers (km). Taking into consideration that the global water requirement is not more than 5 cubic Km for 6 billion (bn) population of our globe for the time being. The uses of water have been increased several times during the last Century. There is evidence that if the water is used sensibly, with protection from contamination, it will be enough to supply a population of 18 bn.

 

The average of present water consumption and increase in population, will lead to decline in fresh water, much below today’s level, in the year 2100. This study deals with the problems facing man kind due to water shortages, through four chapters:

 

Chapter 1:

Includes four sections which deal with the geographical distribution of water around the world, discussing the surface waters (rivers and lakes) and the underground waters in addition to ice-rivers which store a huge reserve of fresh water. Also the study has looked into the ever increasing needs of the water and food for the growing population. Followed by the problems of pollution of the fresh water and its damaging effects on the environment like: irrigation, increased soil salts, drains and contamination of the rivers and lakes and how to deal with these problems.

The fourth and final section of this chapter, has been allocated for the environmental protection and how to deal with the causes of the pollution and the measures to be taken to combat it.

 

Chapter 2

Consists of three sections, dealing with the damaging effects of pollution. The first section discusses the black hole in the ozone layer and how the ozone layer gets damaged and its effects on life.

The second section deals with the negative effects of  carbon dioxide on the Ozone layer and the mechanisms that produce that damage, as well as the mechanism of rays balancing in the region of long and short waves.

And finally it discusses the expected damages as a result of the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

The third section has dealt with the deterioration in the forests and the devastating effects on the environment. Also we discussed in detail the main factors which have damaged the forests and led to desertification and the causes of acid rain and their effects on fresh water and life.

 

Chapter 3:

This chapter consists of two sections. The discussion has been focussed on meteorological and geological changes and their successive ages for the past 700 000 years, in particular the third and fourth ages and the great meteorological changes that had resulted. Also we discussed the snow ages and their polar balancing effects on our global weather for the past 100 years.

In the second section we discussed the results and  predicted changes related to meteorological theories (global warming and the return of the snow age) and their effects on the global weather and the scientific reservations on these theories. Also the different views for and against these two theories have been discussed.

Chapter 4:

This chapter consists of 4 sections, discussing fresh water in the Arab world. The first section is allocated to discuss the geography of the Arab countries in relation to the World. (site, weather, surface, rains and regions). Then the effects of the global meteorological change on the Arab countries (global warming and the return of the snow age).

We discussed the necessary strategies to protect the environment.

In the second section, the fresh water resources, surface and underground, was discussed, as well as the geological components, their sizes and the sensible way of investing in them.

The third section discussed the negative effects of the shortage of fresh water and food supply on life and the necessary measures to be taken to combat the desertification and water shortage.

The fourth section, is about the proposed solutions and how to deal with these problems to avoid water shortages and the best ways of investing in water resources in the Arab world.

 

And finally, there is a summary of the study in the end of the book. The appendix which consists of glossary of scientific terminology used in this study, and tables and graphs comparing different sources. This is followed by a bibliography and then a section used for the Arabic and foreign references, books and journals that this study has used in its research work.

This research is a continuation of my previous work in this field about the water in the Middle-East.

I used the methodology which ranges from the local to universal, starting from Mesopotamia, the valley of Euphrates and Tigris, then the Nile Valley, Jordan Valley, and finally the International water treaties in the Middle-East.

The aim of this study is to portray the water problem in general at the global level.