Soil and Water

              (Reforming the Soil, Irrigation and the drainage) 


The agriculture requires suitable conditions in order to achieve economic results. The soil for instance, requires certain physical and chemical preparation in order to allow the plants to absorb the necessary nutritional elements required for its growth and development. This is accompanied with enough supply of water for irrigation containing certain proportions of well balanced salts, without harming the soil and the plants.

The low salt concentration of water in irrigation plays important role in keeping the ideal salt balance in the soil that reflects positively on the growth and development of the plant and achieve good agricultural product. The study consists of three chapters, a summary and supplements:


Chapter 1: is about the deterioration of the soil and how to improve it through several approaches: the ownership of the land, the general principles of studying the soil, the soil and the factors which lead to its deterioration, the properties of the alkaline and salty soil, the international classification of the alkaline and salty soil, and how to improve the alkaline and salty soil.


Chapter 2: studies the system of the soil and water through several ways: The water system in the soil and plant, the suitability of the irrigational water for the soil and the plant, and their adverse effects of salt rise on the soil and plant.


Chapter 3: looks into the irrigation and drainage systems in different ways: To select the irrigation method, ways and mechanisms of the conventional irrigation, ways and mechanisms of modern irrigation, selecting drainage method, the covered and uncovered ways and mechanisms of the drainage systems.


The summary and supplements: In the summary the author mentioned the most important aspects of the research, its results and its conclusion. In the supplements, the author mentioned definitions of the concepts and terminologies used in the study, and the special mathematical formulae he used in calculations in the tables (the soil, water and plants) then followed by a list of references used for the study in the Arabic and foreign languages.