Summary of the study: Global climate change

(Expectations, risks, adaptation actions)

2100 - 1950

 

Global climate change has become a reality because of the high emissions of greenhouse gases and the negative human activities, which negatively affected the components of air elements and natural phenomena and formed gaseous layer parallel to the atmospheric layer preventing the solar radiation reflected from the Earth's surface to outer space-albedo, causing a chain reactions vis: global warming, rising Earth's temperature which in turn increase melting the ice sheets at the poles that increase the water level in the seas and oceans and breaks down the thermal balance of the layers of water at the sea surface and depths and salinity, which negatively affect the movement and direction of the sea waves and repeat sever rainstorms and catastrophic floods, volcano eruption, and earthquakes.

This will lead to the increase of the concentration of the chlorine, fluorine and carbon elements in the atmosphere that disturb the ozone layer particularly in the Arctic region, with further increase the radiation leaks of ultraviolet violet light from the space to the Earth causing sever damages to the living organisms and the environment.

In spite of the international trends to reduce greenhouse gases in the 21st century to limit the risks of global climate change and reduce the negative effects of such changes on people, property, ecosystems, water resources, fresh water and agriculture, but these measures are much less than required and not heeded entirely.

The study consists of introduction, four chapters and conclusion and appendices.

Chapter 1 (natural phenomena affecting the regional and global climate), consists of three axes: the first axis (types of hurricanes and sea currents) includes two items: the types of hurricanes (causes and harms), and types of sea water currents (causes and harms).

The second axis (the movement of wind and trends in the globe) includes two items: The types of wind and its direction (regions, severity, harm), and natural influences on the movement of wind and its direction.

The third axis (types of volcanoes and earthquakes in the world) includes two items: the types of volcanoes (their location and activities), and the types of earthquakes (generation and locations).

Chapter II (global warming and software modeling and evaluation) consists of three axes: the first axis (global climate change, its causes and consequences) includes three items: the causes of the phenomena of global climate extremism and its consequences, and the effects of climate change on global warming, and the negative effects of global warming on the globe.

The second axis (modeling programs and evaluation of global climate system) includes four items: the global climate system and its changes (modeling and evaluation), and the effects of radiation coercion in the global climate system, and the effects of human activities negative in the climate system and future prospects, and the use of conventional and renewable energy.

The third axis (the risks of climate change and adaptation measures in the Arab world) includes three items: the risks of climate change and adaptation action management, and the requirements to adapt to the risks of climate change in urban and rural areas, and the requirements to adapt to climate changes in ecosystems and deficit water.

Chapter III (floods and disruption of water balance risk) consists of five axes: the first axis (coordinated and integrated management to thwart the risks of floods) includes three items: rainwater runoff mechanisms in the soil and waterways, and the types of floods and preparation of plans for protection from risks, local and international coordination and cooperation to cope with the risks of floods and rehabilitation.

The second axis (the design of sewage networks to absorb surpluses floods) includes two items: Account mechanism for hydraulic network sewage water system, and design patterns of networks of sewage water and rain.

The third axis (water sources in nature and uses) includes three items: water varied styles and time periods for renewal, and the basins of transboundary and international agreements, and the importance of the construction of dams to store water.

The fourth axis (the disruption of the water balance and objectives of water planning) includes two items: the reasons of the deficit in water resources and the disruption of the water balance, water and planning and inventory of water resources.

And fifth axis (water trade, colonialism, water and agricultural) includes two items: virtual water trade (import and export), colonialism and agricultural water.

Chapter IV (Challenges of agricultural sector and sustainable development) consists of three axes: the first axis (the future of the agricultural sector challenges causes and methods to face) includes three items: obstacles to the advancement of the agricultural sector, low soil fertility and methods of improving productivity, reduced forest areas (deforestations) and their negative impacts on agriculture and water.

The second axis (The main requirement for the development of the agricultural sector rain fed and irrigated patterns) includes two items: rain fed patterns, irrigated crops (irrigation methods and the diversity of water sources).

The third axis (Sustainable agricultural management and procedures to adapt to climate change) includes three items: sustainable participatory management of cultivation requirements, and the requirements of the technical and institutional management of land and water management, and sustainable management goals and actions to adapt to climate change.

Finally, Conclusion followed by appendices: Arabic and foreign references.