Design and Administration of Water control system

(Rivers, Dams and Floods)

 

The administration of water system requires several hydraulic and geographical studies, to locate their systems and to classify them according to the nature of the stream, legal system, length of the rivers, and quality of the water, topography, and pattern of the rivers or the canals, type of the water stream and the scale of the floods. While the designs of the artificial canals require full understanding of the volume of the influx of the water, the amount of the precipitates carried by the water, number of the water projects to be built on the main river or canal, quality of the water, the surface area of the land required to be irrigated, the scale of the water contamination, land topography, water quality, length of the main canal and the number of the tributaries required, the speed of the water stream in the canals, then the local conventional traditions in the region, the ways and means of irrigation, existence of underground water, the amount of rain falls, other climatic factors, type and surface area covered with plants and grasses, standard of farmers awareness and education, and finally, type of the irrigating canals.

The active water firm administration requires understanding of the types of these firms (rivers, ponds, lakes, seas, marshes, and underground waters), their aims (control, to get rid of floods, stream control, and other things taking part in forming artificial canals). Also it requires deciding the type of the dams built on the river, whether they are cumulative rocks, soils, cement, or concrete. Because each type requires its special building depending on the type of the soil of the basement of the dam and the effects of other factors on its strength and stability. The study consists of three chapters:

Chapter one: consists of three parts, first about the canals, their classification, design and system. It looks into classification of the water streams, designs of the open canals, and those of the irrigation and the engineering projects built on the open canals, the hydraulic system of the water stream.

The second part is about the digging in the water stream, the soil of the canals, types of water, types of the precipitate carried by the water, and their effects on the quality of the land topography and the river bed. Part three is about the segments of the canals and their maintenance and improvement, both mechanical and biological, and the changes happen in different parts of the canals, the improvements required on each segment, both, bed and shores.

Chapter two: Consists of three parts. The first part is about the old water projects like dams and canals etc. It looks into the water projects built in Mesopotamia and Syria. Part two, is about the new water projects, their classification and the conditions of their buildings according to the type of the stream, water reservoir, natural change of the direction of the river.

Part three is about classification of dams and how they were built. This part looks into the conditions of building the dams (topography, geography of the region, climate, water stream, the aim of the water project, quality of the soil and the economic benefits, in addition to classification of the dams in regard to its hydraulic, rocky, soil, soil-rocky, concrete, light or heavy.

Chapter Three: consists of four parts; Part one is about earth-quakes, volcanoes and storms in their origins, types, and their negative effects on the water projects, environment and the people. Part two is about the floods and the measures taken in prediction, control and protection. It looks into causes of the floods and their catastrophic consequences, how to predict them, and the measures to protect against the floods, like mobile walls, ready made walls, flood gates and sand bags, in addition to means and ways of co-operation between the neighboring countries in such situations.

Part three is about hydraulic and the soil dynamics. It studies the quality and characters of the soil, its fertility and capillarity, incidence of flood, and the phenomena of soil losses and precipitation by the floods.

Part four, is about the collapse of the dams, causes and how to deal with it. It looks into the effects of the natural factors in the collapse of the dams, the effects of the substances used in their building, the engineering and other factors in the collapse of the dams and their rifts, basal attrition, regression and so on. Followed by a summary and supplements about: the terminologies, mathematic formulae, and a bibliography of the Arabic and foreign references.

 

Title: Design and Administration of Water control system

(Rivers, Dams and Floods)

Year: 2008.

Page:191.

Publishing: Alhassad- Damascus.